Nov 2018
Biochemical properties and regulation of the TopoVI-like complex responsible for the initiation of meiotic recombination

Alexandre Nore - Team : Meiosis and recombination (Bernard De Massy)

Salle Séminaires 1er étage IGH

To properly transmit their genetic information from one generation to another, sexually reproductive organisms need to halve their genome to form haploid gametes. This reduction occurs during a special cell division called meiosis, which proceeds through one round of DNA replication followed by two successive divisions called meiosis I and II. During meiosis I homologous chromosomes segregate, and their proper segregation depends on the homologous recombination pathway that establishes a physical link between the homologues. During meiosis, homologous recombination events are triggered by the formation of DNA double strand break (DSB) catalyzed by the evolutionarily conserved Spo11 protein. Spo11 is the meiotic ortholog of the catalytic subunit of the TopoVI topoisomerase, TopoVIA. As TopoVI is composed of two subunits, TopoVIA and TopoVIB, the requirement for meiotic DSB formation of a B subunit was under investigation since the identification of Spo11. During my PhD, I contributed to the identification of a new family of protein, the TopoVIB-like family, ortholog to the Topoisomerase VI B subunit (TopoVIB) and required for meiotic DNA double strand break formation (Robert et al, 2016). These proteins share domains in part similar to the canonical TopoVIB which are a GHKL domain (involved in ATP binding and hydrolysis), a transducer domain and a CTD domain. We demonstrated that in mice, SPO11 forms a complex with TOPOVIBL. Biochemical characterization of this complex showed a structure compatible with an A2B2 organization. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this protein is required for meiotic DSB formation. These results suggest the existence, in mice, of a TopoVI-like complex that catalyzes the formation of meiotic DSB. In S. cerevisiae, there is no clear TopoVIB-like ortholog, but we found that the Rec102 protein, which is known to be required for the formation of meiotic DSB, shows a partial homology with the transducer domain of the TopoVIB-like proteins. Rec102 forms a complex with Rec104, a protein also essential for DSB formation. Thus, we hypothesized that the Rec102/Rec104 complex is the yeast meiotic ortholog of TopoVIB, interacting with Spo11 to form a meiotic TopoVI-like complex. Despite the importance of Spo11 little is known about its mode of action. This absence of biochemical data is due to the lack of solubility of the protein. The aim of my PhD was to characterize the mode of action and regulation of the TopoVI-like complex for meiotic DSB formation. First, biochemically, by purifying in vitro a soluble form of the yeast TopoVI-like complex composed by Spo11/Rec102/Rec104/Ski8. To achieve this objective, I co-expressed these proteins in two different expression systems, E. coli and meiotic culture of S. cerevisiae. Using E. coli I managed to purify a soluble complex formed by Spo11/Rec102/Rec104/Ski8, and using meiotic culture of S. cerevisiae, I purified two different complexes, one formed, by the four proteins, and one formed only by Spo11 and Rec102. Nevertheless, in vitro activity essays on different DNA substrates did not reveal any DNA cleavage activity. The second goal of my PhD was to study how in mouse, the activity of TOPOVIBL / SPO11 may be regulated by other proteins known to be required for DSB formation. Using Y2H experiment I was able to prove that, as in yeast, mouse TOPOVIBL interacts with REC114, a protein required for DSB formation. The mapping of this interaction at the amino-acid scale, leads to the identification of one residue on TOPOVIBL essential for the interaction between TOPOVIBL and REC114. In order to investigate in vivo the role of the interaction between TOPOVIBL and REC114, a mutant mouse carrying a mutation in the identified residue of TOPOVIBL was generated using CRISPER-Cas9, and its phenotype analyzed.

Feb 2019
Seminar Series on Genome Dynamics: The biological role of Polycomb and MLL complexes in stem cells and cancer

Luciano Di Croce - CRG, Barcelona, Spain

Contact IGH : Giacomo Cavalli
Amphithéâtre Genopolys