Chromatin and cell biology

Genome dynamics

The genome is more than a linear string of genes. It has secondary, tertiary and quaternary higher-order structures. Strings of genes organize in chromosomal domains that are characterized by one of relatively few different types of chromatin, either repressive or activating. In the 3D space, each of the elements in one domain makes frequent contacts with other elements in the same domain. These entities have been called physical- or topologically associated- domains (TADs).
At a chromosome level, individual TADs form contacts with other TADs, preferentially of the same type, in order to build ordered 3D architectures that are called chromosome territories. Finally, different chromosomes organize non randomly in the nuclear space.
Therefore, the eukaryotic genome is highly organized in 3D and this regulation can be transmitted or modulated during the life of cells and organisms.
This sophisticated chromosomal choreography involves thousands of different players – DNA sequences, RNAs and proteins – but rather than combining in infinite numbers of ways, these components organize a relatively limited number of types of chromatin, either active or repressive. In particular, two main groups of genome regulatory components are proteins of the Polycomb Group (PcG) and of the trithorax Group (trxG). PcG proteins are maintain the memory of silent states of gene expression through cell physiology and multiple cell divisions, while trxG members maintain active chromatin states
These proteins are able to recognize regulatory states of their target genes and to maintain these states even after disappearance of the primary transcriptional regulators that have induced them in the first place. Remarkably, these states can also be transmitted to a fraction of the progeny over multiple generations. In our lab, we aim at understanding the principle governing 3D genome organization, its functional implications, and the molecular mechanisms by which PcG and trxG proteins regulate their target genes, convey inheritance of chromatin states and orchestrate development.
To reach this goal, we employ a variety of complementary approaches and techniques in the areas of molecular, cellular and developmental biology, genomics and bioinformatics.

Frederic Bantignies
Frederic BANTIGNIES
Project leader
Researcher

0434359997
Giacomo CAVALLI
Researcher

0434359970
Thierry Cheutin
Thierry CHEUTIN
Researcher

0434359997
Jacques Drouin
Jacques DROUIN
Chercheur invité
Researcher

0434359997
Anne-Marie MARTINEZ
Project leader
Researcher

0434359969
Bernd Schuttengruber
Bernd SCHUTTENGRUBER
Researcher

0434359997
Axelle Donjon
Axelle DONJON
Lab Manager
IT

0434359997
Lauriane Fritsch
Lauriane FRITSCH
IT

0434359997
Davide Normanno
Davide NORMANNO
IT

0434359662
Marco Di Stefano
Marco DI STEFANO
Postdoc

0434359968
Max Fitz-James
Max FITZ-JAMES
Postdoc

0434359968
Ivana JERKOVIC
Postdoc

0434359997
Flora Paldi
Flora PALDI
Postdoc

0434359968
Gonzalo Sabaris
Gonzalo SABARIS
Postdoc

0434359968
Nazli Akilli
Nazli AKILLI
PhD Student

0434359997
Sandrine Denaud
Sandrine DENAUD
PhD Student

0434359997
Victoria Parreno
Victoria PARRENO
PhD Student

0434359968
Ana-Maria Popmihaylova
Ana-Maria POPMIHAYLOVA
PhD Student

0434359968
Hadrien Reboul
Hadrien REBOUL
PhD Student

0434359997
Michael Szalay
Michael SZALAY
PhD Student

0434359997

PUBLICATIONS OF THE TEAM

A shared ancient enhancer element differentially regulates the bric-a-brac tandem gene duplicates in the developing Drosophila leg.

Bourbon HG, Benetah MH, Guillou E, Mojica-Vazquez LH, Baanannou A, Bernat-Fabre S, Loubiere V, Bantignies F, Cavalli G, Boube M

Comprehensive characterization of the epigenetic landscape in Multiple Myeloma.

Alaterre E, Ovejero S, Herviou L, de Boussac H, Papadopoulos G, Kulis M, Boireau S, Robert N, Requirand G, Bruyer A, Cartron G, Vincent L, Martinez AM, Martin-Subero JI, Cavalli G, Moreaux J

HiCmapTools: a tool to access HiC contact maps.

Chang JM, Weng YF, Chang WT, Lin FA, Cavalli G

SETDB1/NSD-dependent H3K9me3/H3K36me3 dual heterochromatin maintains gene expression profiles by bookmarking poised enhancers.

Barral A, Pozo G, Ducrot L, Papadopoulos GL, Sauzet S, Oldfield AJ, Cavalli G, Déjardin J

Mechanisms of Polycomb group protein function in cancer.

Parreno V, Martinez AM, Cavalli G

Molecular mechanisms of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.

Fitz-James MH, Cavalli G

Clinical Correlations of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 in Different Tumor Types.

Erokhin M, Chetverina O, Győrffy B, Tatarskiy VV, Mogila V, Shtil AA, Roninson IB, Moreaux J, Georgiev P, Cavalli G, Chetverina D

Understanding 3D genome organization by multidisciplinary methods

Ivana Jerkovic´ & Giacomo Cavalli

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Regulation of single-cell genome organization into TADs and chromatin nanodomains

Szabo, Q., Donjon, A., Jerkovic, I., Papadopoulos, G.L., Cheutin, T., Bonev, B., Nora, E., Bruneau, B.G., Bantignies, F., and Cavalli, G.

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4D Genome Rewiring during Oncogene-Induced and Replicative Senescence

Sati, S., Bonev, B., Szabo, Q., Jost, D., Bensadoun, P., Serra, F., Loubiere...

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Widespread activation of developmental gene expression characterized by PRC1-dependent chromatin looping.

Loubiere V, Papadopoulos GL, Szabo Q, Martinez AM, Cavalli G


+ Chromatin and cell biology

Widespread activation of developmental gene expression characterized by PRC1-dependent chromatin looping.

Loubiere V, Papadopoulos GL, Szabo Q, Martinez AM, Cavalli G


+ Chromatin and cell biology

Global chromatin conformation differences in the Drosophila dosage compensated chromosome X.

Pal K, Forcato M, Jost D, Sexton T, Vaillant C, Salviato E, Mazza EMC, Lugli E, Cavalli G, Ferrari F


+ Chromatin and cell biology

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Global chromatin conformation differences in the Drosophila dosage compensated chromosome X.

Pal K, Forcato M, Jost D, Sexton T, Vaillant C, Salviato E, Mazza EMC, Lugli E, Cavalli G, Ferrari F


+ Chromatin and cell biology

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The multiscale effects of polycomb mechanisms on 3D chromatin folding.

Cheutin T, Cavalli G


+ Chromatin and cell biology

The multiscale effects of polycomb mechanisms on 3D chromatin folding.

Cheutin T, Cavalli G


+ Chromatin and cell biology

Higher-Order Chromosomal Structures Mediate Genome Function.

Jerković I, Szabo Q, Bantignies F, Cavalli G


+ Chromatin and cell biology

Higher-Order Chromosomal Structures Mediate Genome Function.

Jerković I, Szabo Q, Bantignies F, Cavalli G


+ Chromatin and cell biology

Advances in epigenetics link genetics to the environment and disease

Giacomo Cavalli and Edith Heard


+ Chromatin and cell biology

Advances in epigenetics link genetics to the environment and disease

Giacomo Cavalli and Edith Heard


+ Chromatin and cell biology

Principles of genome folding into topologically associating domains.

Szabo Q, Bantignies F, Cavalli G

Microscopy-Based Chromosome Conformation Capture Enables Simultaneous Visualization of Genome Organization and Transcription in Intact Organisms.

Cardozo Gizzi AM, Cattoni DI, Fiche JB, Espinola SM, Gurgo J, Messina O, Houbron C, Ogiyama Y, Papadopoulos GL, Cavalli G, Lagha M, Nollmann M

Cell Fate and Developmental Regulation Dynamics by Polycomb Proteins and 3D Genome Architecture.

Loubiere V, Martinez AM, Cavalli G

PRC2 targeting is a therapeutic strategy for EZ score defined high-risk multiple myeloma patients and overcome resistance to IMiDs.

Herviou L, Kassambara A, Boireau S, Robert N, Requirand G, Müller-Tidow C, Vincent L, Seckinger A, Goldschmidt H, Cartron G, Hose D, Cavalli G, Moreaux J


+ Maintenance of genome integrity during DNA replication

Challenges and guidelines toward 4D nucleome data and model standards.

Marti-Renom MA, Almouzni G, Bickmore WA, Bystricky K, Cavalli G, Fraser P, Gasser SM, Giorgetti L, Heard E, Nicodemi M, Nollmann M, Orozco M, Pombo A, Torres-Padilla ME

Loss of PRC1 induces higher-order opening of Hox loci independently of transcription during Drosophila embryogenesis.

Cheutin T, Cavalli G

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Polycomb-Dependent Chromatin Looping Contributes to Gene Silencing during Drosophila Development.

Ogiyama Y, Schuettengruber B, Papadopoulos GL, Chang JM, Cavalli G

TADs are 3D structural units of higher-order chromosome organization in Drosophila.

Szabo Q, Jost D, Chang JM, Cattoni DI, Papadopoulos GL, Bonev B, Sexton T, Gurgo J, Jacquier C, Nollmann M, Bantignies F, Cavalli G

Technical Review: A Hitchhiker's Guide to Chromosome Conformation Capture.

Grob S, Cavalli G

Genome Regulation by Polycomb and Trithorax: 70 Years and Counting

Schuettengruber, B., Bourbon, HM., Di Croce, L., Cavalli, G.

Multi-scale 3D genome rewiring during mouse neural development.

Bonev, B., Mendelson Cohen, N., Szabo, Q., Fritsch, L., Papadopoulos, G., Lubling, Y., Xu, X., Hugnot, JP., Tanay, A., Cavalli, G.

Stable Polycomb-dependent transgenerational inheritance of chromatin states in Drosophila

Ciabrelli F, Comoglio F, Fellous S, Bonev B, Ninova M, Szabo Q, Xuéreb A, Klopp C, Aravin A, Paro R, Bantignies F, Cavalli G

Three-Dimensional Genome Organization and Function in Drosophila

Schwartz YB, Cavalli G.

Chromosome topology guides the Drosophila Dosage Compensation Complex for target gene activation

Schauer T, Ghavi-Helm Y, Sexton T, Albig C, Regnard C, Cavalli G, Furlong EE, Becker PB.

Single-cell absolute contact probability detection reveals chromosomes are organized by multiple low-frequency yet specific interactions

Cattoni DI, Gizzi AMC, Georgieva M, Di Stefano M, Valeri A, Chamousset D, Houbron C, Déjardin S, Fiche JB, González I, Chang JM, Sexton T, Marti-Renom MA, Bantignies F, Cavalli G, Nollmann M.

Chromosome conformation capture technologies and their impact in understanding genome function

Sati S, Cavalli G.

Chromosome Conformation Capture on Chip (4C): Data Processing

Leblanc B, Comet I, Bantignies F, Cavalli G.

Regulation of Genome Architecture and Function by Polycomb Proteins

Entrevan M, Schuettengruber B, Cavalli G

Coordinate redeployment of PRC1 proteins suppresses tumor formation during Drosophila development

Loubière, V., Delest, A., Thomas, A., Bonev, B., Schuettengruber, B., Sati, S., Martinez AM., Cavalli, G.

Following the Motion of Polycomb Bodies in Living Drosophila Embryos

Cheutin T, Cavalli G.

Organization and function of the 3D genome

Bonev B, Cavalli G.

PRC1 proteins orchestrate three-dimensional genome architecture

Cavalli, G.

Distinct polymer physics principles govern chromatin dynamics in mouse and Drosophila topological domains

Ea V, Sexton T, Gostan T, Herviou L, Baudement MO, Zhang Y, Berlivet S, Le Lay-Taha MN, Cathala G, Lesne A, Victor JM, Fan Y, Cavalli G, Forné T.

Enhancer of zeste acts as a major developmental regulator of Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis

Le Goff E, Martinand-Mari C, Martin M, Feuillard J, Boublik Y, Godefroy N, Mangeat P, Baghdiguian S, Cavalli G

Histone H3 Serine 28 Is Essential for Efficient Polycomb-Mediated Gene Repression in Drosophila

Yung PY, Stuetzer A, Fischle W, Martinez AM, Cavalli G

Chromatin driven behavior of topologically associating domains

Ciabrelli F, Cavalli G.

Developmental determinants in non-communicable chronic diseases and ageing

Bousquet J, Anto JM, Berkouk K, Gergen P, Pinto Antunes J, Augé P, Camuzat T, Bringer J, Mercier J, Best N, Bourret R, Akdis M, Arshad SH, Bedbrook A, Berr C, Bush A, Cavalli G, Charles MA, Clavel-Chapelon F, Gillman M, Gold DR, Goldberg M, Holloway JW, Iozzo P, Jacquemin S, Jeandel C, Kauffmann F, Keil T, Koppelman GH, Krauss-Etschmann S, Kuh D, Lehmann S, Lodrup Carlsen KC, Maier D, Méchali M, Melén E, Moatti JP, Momas I, Nérin P, Postma DS, Ritchie K, Robine JM, Samolinski B, Siroux V, Slagboom PE, Smit HA, Sunyer J, Valenta R, Van de Perre P, Verdier JM, Vrijheid M, Wickman M, Yiallouros P, Zins M.

+ Replication and Genome Dynamics

The Role of Chromosome Domains in Shaping the Functional Genome

Sexton, T., Cavalli, G.

Chromosomes: now in 3D!

Cavalli, G.

Polycomb silencing: from linear chromatin domains to 3D chromosome folding

Cheutin T, Cavalli G

A RING to Rule Them All: RING1 as Silencer and Activator

Cavalli, G.

Identification of Regulators of the Three-Dimensional Polycomb Organization by a Microscopy-Based Genome-wide RNAi Screen

Gonzalez I, Mateos-Langerak J, Thomas A, Cheutin T, Cavalli G.

Modeling epigenome folding: formation and dynamics of topologically associated chromatin domains

Jost D, Carrivain P, Cavalli G, Vaillant C.

Topological organization of Drosophila hox genes using DNA fluorescent in situ hybridization

Bantignies, F., Cavalli, G.

Cooperativity, Specificity, and Evolutionary Stability of Polycomb Targeting in Drosophila

Schuettengruber B, Oded Elkayam N, Sexton T, Entrevan M, Stern S, Thomas A, Yaffe E, Parrinello H, Tanay A, Cavalli G.

Chromosomal domains: epigenetic contexts and functional implications of genomic compartmentalization.

Tanay A, Cavalli G.

Three-dimensional genome organization: a lesson from the Polycomb-Group proteins

Bantignies, F.

PRC2 Controls Drosophila Oocyte Cell Fate by Repressing Cell Cycle Genes.

Iovino N, Ciabrelli F, Cavalli G.

The 3D Genome Shapes Up For Pluripotency.

Sexton T, Cavalli G.

Functional implications of genome topology

Cavalli, G., Mistelli, T.

Polycomb domain formation depends on short and long distance regulatory cues.

Schuettengruber B, Cavalli G.

Molecular biology. EZH2 goes solo

Cavalli, G.

Three-Dimensional Folding and Functional Organization Principles of the Drosophila Genome.

Sexton T, Yaffe E, Kenigsberg E, Bantignies F, Leblanc B, Hoichman M, Parrinello H, Tanay A, Cavalli G.

Polycomb: a paradigm for genome organization from one to three dimensions.

Delest A, Sexton T, Cavalli G.

Progressive polycomb assembly on H3K27me3 compartments generates polycomb bodies with developmentally regulated motion

Cheutin T, Cavalli G.

Rolling ES Cells Down the Waddington Landscape with Oct4 and Sox2

Iovino, N., Cavalli, G.

Polycomb group proteins: repression in 3D.

Bantignies F, Cavalli G.

Editorial Review

Hetzer, M., Cavalli, G

Chromatin folding : from linear chromosomes to the 4D nucleus.

Cheutin, T., Bantignies, F., Leblanc, B., Cavalli, G.

Trithorax group proteins: switching genes on and keeping them active.

Schuettengruber B, Martinez AM, Iovino N, Cavalli G.

From linear genes to Epigenetic inheritance of three dimensional Epigenomes.

Cavalli, G.

A chromatin insulator driving three-dimensional Polycomb response element (PRE) contacts and Polycomb association with the chromatin fiber.

Comet, I., Schuettengruber, B., Sexton, T., Cavalli, G

Polycomb-dependent Regulatory Contacts between Distant Hox Loci in Drosophila,

Bantignies, F., Roure, V., Comet, I., Leblanc, B., Schuttengruber, B., Bonnet, J., Tixier, V., Mas, A., Cavalli, G.

Uncovering a tumor-suppressor function for Drosophila polycomb group genes.

Martinez, AM., Cavalli, G

The DUBle life of polycomb complexes

Schuettengruber, B., Cavalli, G

Epigenetics and the control of multicellularity. Workshop on Chromatin at the Nexus of Cell Division and Differentiation.

Reuter G, Cavalli G.

Functional Anatomy of Polycomb and Trithorax Chromatin Landscapes in Drosophila Embryos

Schuettengruber B, Ganapathi M, Leblanc B, Portoso M, Jaschek R, Tolhuis B, van Lohuizen M, Tanay A, Cavalli G.

Polyhomeotic has a tumor suppressor activity mediated by repression of Notch signaling

Martinez, AM., Schuettengruber, B., Sakr, S., Janic, A., Gonzalez, C., and Cavalli, G.

Genomic interactions: Chromatin loops and gene meeting points in transcriptional regulation

Sexton, T., Bantignies, F., Cavalli, G.

Recruitment of polycomb group complexes and their role in the dynamic regulation of cell fate choice.

Schuettengruber B, Cavalli G.

The Role of RNAi and Noncoding RNAs in Polycomb Mediated Control of Gene Expression and Genomic Programming.

Portoso, M, and Cavalli, G.

Chapter 2 polycomb group proteins and long-range gene regulation.

Mateos-Langerak J, Cavalli G

Visualizing macromolecules with fluoronanogold: from photon microscopy to electron tomography.

Cheutin, T., Sauvage, C., Tchélidzé, P., O

Idefix insulator activity can be modulated by nearby regulatory elements.

Brasset E, Bantignies F, Court F, Cheresiz S, Conte C, Vaury C.

Chromosome kissing

Cavalli, G.

Polycomb response elements mediate the formation of chromosome higher-order structures in the bithorax complex.

Lanzuolo C, Roure V, Dekker J, Bantignies F, Orlando V.

Dynamic genome architecture in the nuclear space: regulation of gene expression in three dimensions.

Lanctot C, Cheutin T, Cremer M, Cavalli G, Cremer T

Genome Regulation by Polycomb and Trithorax Proteins.

Schuettengruber B, Chourrout D, Vervoort M, Leblanc B, Cavalli G.

Polycomb controls the cell fate.

Negre N, Cavalli G.

Mapping the distribution of chromatin proteins by ChIP on chip.

Negre N, Lavrov S, Hennetin J, Bellis M, Cavalli G.

From genetics to epigenetics: the tale of Polycomb group and trithorax group genes.

Grimaud C, Negre N, Cavalli G.

PRE-Mediated Bypass of Two Su(Hw) Insulators Targets PcG Proteins to a Downstream Promoter.

Comet I, Savitskaya E, Schuettengruber B, Negre N, Lavrov S, Parshikov A, Juge F, Gracheva E, Georgiev P, Cavalli G.

Chromatin and epigenetics in development: blending cellular memory with cell fate plasticity.

Cavalli G.

The role of polycomb group proteins in cell cycle regulation during development.

Martinez AM, Cavalli G.

Cellular memory and dynamic regulation of polycomb group proteins.

Bantignies F, Cavalli G.

RNAi components are required for nuclear clustering of Polycomb group response elements.

Grimaud C, Bantignies F, Pal-Bhadra M, Ghana P, Bhadra U, Cavalli G.

Chromosomal Distribution of PcG Proteins during Drosophila Development.

Negre N, Hennetin J, Sun LV, Lavrov S, Bellis M, White KP, Cavalli G.

Polycomb group-dependent Cyclin A repression in Drosophila.

Martinez AM, Colomb S, Dejardin J, Bantignies F, Cavalli G.

Recruitment of Drosophila Polycomb Group proteins to chromatin by DSP1

Déjardin, J., Rappailles, A., Cuvier, O., Grimaud, C., Decoville, M., Locker, D., and Cavalli, G.

+ Replication and Genome Dynamics

Epigenetic inheritance of chromatin states mediated by Polycomb- and trithorax group proteins in Drosophila

Déjardin, J., and Cavalli, G.

The epigenome network of excellence.

Akhtar A, Cavalli G

Recruitment of Drosophila Polycomb group proteins to chromatin by DSP1

Dejardin J, Cavalli G.

Combined immunostaining and FISH analysis of polytene chromosomes

Lavrov, S., Déjardin, J., and Cavalli, G.

Interaction between GAF and Mod(mdg4) proteins promotes insulator bypass in Drosophila

Melnikova, L., Juge, F., Gruzdeva, N., Mazur, A., Cavalli, G., and Georgiev, P.

Chromatin inheritance upon Zeste-mediated Brahma recruitment at a minimal cellular memory module

Déjardin, J., and Cavalli, G.

Dissection of a natural RNA silencing process in the Drosophila melanogaster germ line

Aravin, A. A., Klenov, M. S., Vagin, V. V., Bantignies, F., Cavalli, G., and Gvozdev, V. A.

Inheritance of Polycomb-dependent chromosomal interactions in Drosophila

Bantignies, F., Grimaud, C., Lavrov, S., Gabut, M., and Cavalli, G.

Protein-DNA interaction mapping using genomic tiling path microarrays in Drosophila

Sun, L. V., Chen, L., Greil, F., Nègre, N., Li, T. R., Cavalli, G., Zhao, H., Van Steensel, B., and White, K.

SNR1 is an essential subunit in a subset of drosophila brm complexes, targeting specific functions during development

Zraly, C. B., Marenda, D. R., Nanchal, R., Cavalli, G., Muchardt, C., and Dingwal, A.K.

The MYST Domain Acetyltransferase Chameau Functions in Epigenetic Mechanisms of Transcriptional Repression

Grienenberger, A., Miotto, B., Sagnier, T., Cavalli, G., Schramke, V., Geli, V., Mariol, M. C., Berenger, H., Graba, Y., and Pradel, J.

Chromatin as a eukaryotic template of genetic information

Cavalli, G.

Mapping DNA target sites of chromatin-associated proteins by formaldehyde cross-linking in Drosophila embryos.

Cavalli, G., Orlando, V., and Paro, R.

Epigenetic Inheritance of active chromatin after removal of the main transactivator

Cavalli, G., Paro, R.

The Drosophila Fab-7 chromosomal element conveys epigenetic inheritance during mitosis and meiosis

11) Cavalli, G., and Paro, R.

CIABRELLI Filippo
CIABRELLI Filippo
CRUK Cambridge
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CARRIVAIN Pascal
CARRIVAIN Pascal
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ROUX Solène
ROUX Solène
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CARRON Léopold
CARRON Léopold
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SZABO Quentin
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BAECKER Volker
BAECKER Volker
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BARRO Marietta
BARRO Marietta
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PORTOSO Manuela
PORTOSO Manuela
Institut Curie Paris
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ROURE Virginie
ROURE Virginie
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CHIORINO Ornella
CHIORINO Ornella
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FERNANDO Celine
FERNANDO Celine
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NAUMOVA Natasha
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NEGRE Nicolas
NEGRE Nicolas
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RIGOARD Raphael
RIGOARD Raphael
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ROCHE Julia
ROCHE Julia
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DELEST Anna
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FALLET Chloé
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SEXTON Thomas
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LEDJEMEL Nabil
LEDJEMEL Nabil
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IOVINO Nicola
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SIMON Mylene
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YUNG Philip yuk kwong
YUNG Philip yuk kwong
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VOCADLO David
VOCADLO David
Simon Fraser University, Canada
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CRUZ SANCHEZ Teresita
CRUZ SANCHEZ Teresita
IGF
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LOGEAY Remi
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MAURIZY Chloé
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JACQUIER-LABROCHE Caroline
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RUBERT-CASTRO Francesc
RUBERT-CASTRO Francesc
University of York
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Hadrien REBOUL, since January 2021, title: Study of genome folding mechanisms from nucleosomes to chromosome domains
Supervisor : Frédéric Bantignies

Nazli AKILLI, since October 2020, title: Functional dissection of mechanisms involved in the formation of H3K27me3 domain
Supervisors: Giacomo Cavalli and Thierry Cheutin at 50%.

Victoria PARRENO, since October 2019, title: Epigenetic regulation of tumorigenesis by the Polycomb PRC1 complex in Drosophila
Supervisor : Anne-Marie MARTINEZ

Michael SZALAY, since September 2019, Role of transcription and Polycomb proteins in 3D genome organization and cell differentiation
Supervisor: Giacomo Cavalli

Sandrine DENAUD, since October 2018, title: Importance of PRE interactions for the regulation of polycomb domains in Drosophila melanogaster
Supervisors: Giacomo Cavalli and Bernd Schüttengruber (50%)